advantages of digital camera in education

1–2 Photographs taken by teachers throughout the year are used for reference and reflection in spring parent conferences as well as a visual complement to the summary of development that teachers give to parents at the end of the year. “Kodak moments” or sentimental snapshots are wonderful, but Bing teachers do not ask children to say “cheese” or smile: Our interest is in documenting children’s authentic interactions with one another and deep engagement with open-ended materials and the natural world. The photographs taken by Bing teachers have the ability to “draw parents in and help them better understand their child,” said photographer and former Bing parent Christina Vervitsioti-Missoffe. Digital technology allows information to be copied and replicated precisely. One assessment my students have to complete is filling in hexagons using a variety of different pattern blocks. At the end of the year I drop the images into a quick editing software program, (I use iMovie, Windows Movie Maker, or Smilebox) and burn a DVD for each student. A child explores a vintage camera with accordion. Advantages Digital photographs can be easily transferred to a computer unlike film photos that require both time and money. Most students don’t like to go to school if they feel like they are wasting their time. PreK–K Even teachers who aren’t “techy” can harness the power of the camera and make big changes digitally in their classrooms. Bring graphic novels to life with the help of Dav Pilkey, Captain Underpants, and free Common Core aligned teacher resources. Give the gift of reading with books for every type of reader in your classroom. Observational drawings invite children to be thoughtful observers, to notice details and to ask questions in order to further their understanding. Paper was not flexible enough, while plastic became a more ideal material for developing film. Digital cameras allow you to create better quality pictures and have much more functions than film cameras. Several weeks later, teachers invited the children to share their unique perspectives through photographs. Happy and Engaged Writers: Graphic Novels and Underpants, Pumpkin Investigations Using Mean, Median, and Mode. PreK–K, List of the Advantages of Technology in Education 1. This characteristic determined a film’s sensitivity to light or what we refer to toda… Film became a better way than chemical coated plates to capture images. Personal Learning Plans often call for evidence to back up teacher learning and growth, but many times things that happen day in and day out in a classroom are hard to “prove.” Digital cameras can record photos and video of students, events, conversations, and lessons to be used as evidence. Classroom engagement is at an all-time low and lecturers are competing against countless diversions from phones, tablets and laptops. Classroom cameras are popping up more and more frequently thanks to built-in devices in tablets, BYOD programs, and the lowered cost of digital cameras. Stick photos of teachers, class visitors, local leaders, or students in an old Guess Who game for a fun update. We’ve implemented Talk Moves in math and use videos of student discussions to show what is happening and to improve our practice, something that would be hard to do authentically without digital recording. Cameras can easily become part of the cognitive process as you ask students to reason and plan what pictures to take and why. Children’s cameras are still available in each classroom, and the photographs that children continue to take are being archived as a resource for future research, documentation or presentations to parents and early childhood educators. Some photographs were unintentionally but artfully blurry as a result of movement, others almost surreal in their point of view or subject matter. Young budding photographer using a digital camera on a field trip. And you can always put a few pics in the class newsletter each week. Something holds the button and the button is snapped onto a light reflector and then every single time it flashes, it flashes on the film. In preparation for autumn quarter and the beginning of a year celebrating Bing’s 50th anniversary, Bing staff produced a photo display, “Image of the Child,” to help articulate our play-based philosophy. School CalendarMap and DirectionsGive to Bing. Another feature that Mrs. Brown benefits from is the maneuverability of the camera head and arm. Here are ten simple ways to put your camera to work for you. Currently, there are still some benefits to having a DSLR with a mirror, but those benefits are being eroded away with each release of new mirrorless cameras. In a nutshell, the advantages of a digital camera are gargantuan. With a quick snap I can capture the student and their work, saving their results. recording projects and presentations for Open House. This way, each student is responsible for their individual part, but they are able to combine work for a greater finished project. , A digital camera is usually lighter in weight than a film camera. Many schools have invested in surveillance technology and have reaped the benefits of having a … Vintage cameras, both box and folding cameras with accordion bellows, were brought into the classroom for children to draw. Learn how Pearson supports the digital transformation of education with online and blended learning, elearning, and digital solutions to improve results, by checking out their Shift to Digital Campaign page. Teachers use them to document children’s experiences at school such as their engagement with one another and with teachers, their curiosity about the natural world and their creative exploration and discoveries using open-ended materials. Why? Here are 40 tips from teachers on quick and easy ways to help make your classroom more manageable. Children also explored cameras and drew them. My families never have students respond with “nothing” when asked what we did today. Working with digital cameras also improves students' computer skills because they need to load pictures from the device onto computers … The advantages of digital cameras and photography include: The resolution of a point-and-shoot camera, which is often 12 to 20 megapixels, is a high enough resolution for large prints. Documentation. create a digital class archive. Research over this span of time has consistently shown the positive benefits of its use. Children were encouraged to take as many pictures as they wanted throughout the day. Find ways to digitally catalog your collection, and get free printable labels. Advantages of digital technology include easy access to information, improved communication and convenience in education. Teachers use them to document children’s experiences at school such as their engagement with one another and with teachers, their curiosity about the natural world and their creative exploration and discoveries using open-ended materials. The larger the school, the more there is that can go wrong. Connect students to each other and to their world around them in whole new ways while inviting families inside the class. Theyve grown up with technology; its woven into their lives. The lens with which we view young children underscores the actions we take to support their development and contributes a great deal to what makes Bing such a special place.”. See how to host a successful parent night with a little help from Clifford! You can take a lot more photos with a digital camera and print out only the ones you like. By making digital cameras an additional learning tool for students, you can help them embrace creativity and truly change the way a lesson is taught. To expand emotional vocabulary, video students making faces to express an emotion and have students guess which emotion is being shown. This means you don't have to buy film, drive to the store, and wait for it to be developed. Multimedia in the classroom has evolved rapidly with a progression from audio cassettes to internet sites in classroom learning. Keep up with all students quickly and easily by adding their image to job charts, center rotations, and the seating chart. Clearly there are a lot of things to consider before investing in a digital camera. Digital cameras are smaller, lighter, sharper, and more powerful. Simple pins and buttons are big hits. Advantages & Disadvantages of Schools Using Multimedia. Delivers authentic learning opport… Film required a gelatin emulsion layer containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals. classroom. My families are backed up with the power of photo. Head teacher Colin Johnson explains, “The exercise revealed profound assumptions that we make about how children view their surroundings, how they interact with and learn from the environment, how they are inherently and fundamentally competent, intentional, and that they live in the moment. You’ll have the picture you need quickly as charts change or for your next photo craft. 3–5, Create a concentration matching game. The first thing that comes in our mind next to the word evolution is the fact that the digital cameras are the future and they are leaving behind the film cameras that have been used by years and years. It doesn’t have to be negative either; snap pics of kids caught doing the right thing too! 9–12, 5 Fantastic Uses of Photos in the Classroom, use basic rules for camera use in the primary classroom. If they say “yes,” they do! TM ® & © 2016 Scholastic Inc. All Rights Reserved. 1–2, It is due to digital technology that our society is now so defined by computers, smart phones, internet access, and cell phone communication. Digital video is available on most devices to capture student responses and oral presentations as well. Kids love to see themselves too. Their responses: Some people pass by with a camera. They are a cherished present with many chances for each child to shine. I still have a plastic key chain with my son’s picture from three years ago and I’ll keep it forever! In addition, digital technology has improved the delivery of services in business and health industries. The majority of us reap its advantages, but a few with vested interests continue to abuse it and make the lives for the rest of us miserable. I don’t usually use cameras as a “gotcha” but occasionally they are useful for documentation. 3–5 A child takes photos with a designated digital camera. student portfolio. Technology is a double-edged sword. –Evie, It’s a lever inside of it and it pushes the lightbulb down and it flashes. It truly is a wonderful time to be alive. , Everyone from professionals to stay-at-home moms are using digital now. Follow along with our class photography at @OurFirstGrade. Working with digital cameras in the classroom often helps students to become familiar with the equipment, as well as terms such as pixels and white balance. Digital technology has changed a lot about how the world works. The photograph digital has eliminated waiting posed by the development of the film 35mm in a specialty store, and now, if you want to relive a recent time, you can make use of the LCD or OLED screen of the camera, screen from a computer or even by connecting the camera to a television via a USB cable. This blog post is written in partnership with Pearson Education as part of their Shift to Digital Learning Campaign. A short teaching video can be used in a learning network to examine best practices happening in a classroom. Inspires and engages students 4. –Nura, When it’s dark out, you need a bonfire for light. Digital Cameras Enhance Education Digital cameras are one of the single most successful Information and Communications Technology purchases you can make in a school. Leveling and Labeling Your Classroom Library. In addition, owners of digital cameras do not need to spend money on buying films and worry about the number of frames remaining. Using pictures the students took, rather than of downloading images from the Internet, gives a much greater sense of ownership in the final product. Students in my class create many different paper items to be used in digital group products. demonstrate vocabulary, emotions, compare/contrast. Most digital cameras have a … They were curious about what the camera looked like inside and what happened in the lens when they pushed the picture-taking button. The children took note of each camera’s shape and its various components and their functions: the lens, shutter, film-winding knob, picture-taking button and viewing window. We walk around with awesome computing power in our pockets – our smartphones. 6–8, View not found. In today’s digital classrooms, video is by no means a new thing. But, the advantages to digital have made it the preferred way people take pictures. I don’t usually use cameras as a “gotcha” but occasionally they are … ameras are an important and powerful tool to deepen Bing Nursery School teachers’ understanding of children and their development. Eastman’s first film roll happened to be paper-based before it was replaced by plastic. Let’s take pictures outside!” said Madina. Facilitates thinking and problem solving 2. It’s a great conversation builder and lets them see their child smiling throughout the day. Photography allows teachers to measure milestones or skills mastered, to better understand challenges and to provide insight into the process of each child’s growth and competency. Using digital cameras in the classroom can help students to learn photography skills, which they can use at home or at their jobs. They may need to take pictures if they work as photographers or reporters. Fosters mastery learning 3. Use the digital camera to take pictures of the students during various events: classroom parties, science projects, gym, art class, etc. Multiple functions, such as motion detection, face detection, and night vision, … I post photos and videos all day to our private class Facebook page and @OurFirstGrade on Twitter. At this time of year I like to teach pumpkin investigations, incorporating estimation activities with mean, median, and mode. Helps develop learner autonomy 5. , Putting cameras into the hands of children was an opportunity to reverse the role that adults and children have had about picture-taking. Digital cameras are generally made available to students during specific tasks in class time for many purposes. Create photo crafts and gifts for holidays and celebrations. Evidence-based findingsindicate using video in the classroom: 1. Download the PDF from here. If Facebook is banned at your school, even parent-contact services like ClassDojo now allow for pictures. The uses for photos and video are endless in the classroom. Get tips for sorting your books, leveling your classroom library, and repairing minor rips and tears. Instructors have been using video to support learning for decades. Our school sells yearbooks, as many do, but so often students only have one or two cameos in the entire thing. Later, I can compare growth, share pictures with parents, and even show good solutions to other students. Examples of multimedia in the classroom include the use of video, the creation of … Capturing images of her classroom or objects at odd angles around the camera have aided her lessons in science and chemistry when it is necessary to use a hotplate. Students can also use photos to capture time-lapse events in class. Cameras are an important and powerful tool to deepen Bing Nursery School teachers’ understanding of children and their development. Memory cards are tiny so they don't require much storage space. A photograph can also encourage reflection. They ask other people if they can take pictures. CD: Planes, Trains and Automobiles (2012). Thanks to videos you can deliver stimulus for the classroom activities. The applications for photos in education are endless, with uses for everything from home-school connections to showing best practices at work. Stimulate activities. I personally think it simply makes more sense going forward to not have the mirror in camera bodies, but that it will take many years before having a mirror is a clear drawback to a camera. Teachers in Center PM asked children what they knew about cameras and their theories about how cameras worked. Digital Cameras: The top 10 things you need to know, includes useful tips and reviews. Interested in your children attending Bing Nursery School? 850 Escondido Road In the Digital Age, physical borders and limitations mean very little. Last year, for example, students made flip books of landforms. Multiple Functions. Note: While the advice sheets aim to act as a guide, the inclusion of any products and company names does not imply approval by the NCTE, nor does the exclusion imply the Stanford, CA 94305Phone: 650-723-4865Fax: 650-725-1270bingschool@stanford.edu. To increase parent involvement, we’ve started a series of math and literacy nights. In addition to documentation and reflection, teachers use photographic images of children for many other purposes: to construct a bulletin board display of the ongoing progress of a long-term classroom project, create innovative curriculum materials, represent children’s growth and development as part of a child’s portfolio at parent conferences, open a window into the classroom through slideshows or newsletters and illustrate presentations at professional conferences. Digital cameras have many advantages over the old film models: A digital camera doesn't require a roll of film. Just taking a picture or video is often enough to get students to stop the unwanted behavior, but it is also a way to keep records. Families love their child, and the more they see their kid’s mug, the better. Understanding for a photographer is as important as the equipment he uses. Take a good photo of each child on their first day and go ahead and resize them. Teachers in Center PM sensed the children’s growing curiosity about cameras and decided to pursue a classroom project on photography. Kids love to take photographs and with digital cameras, said Lelia Cross, computer teacher at Community School in Roanoke, Virginia. If you want to photograph a man spinning, give some thought to why he spins. So, let’s proceed and see which the advantages are and which the disadvantages are. Parents are able to see the learning and fun going on in the classroom. Hello, digital camera! A designated “children’s camera” was given to each classroom. It was a strip of plastic coated with chemicals that were sensitive to light. Any classroom center where students match letters and sounds can be recreated with images from real life. I snap pictures and take video all the time, especially during field trips and special events. What innovative ways are you using photos to make classroom connections? But using technology in the classroom isnt just about digital devices in class it relates to anything that facilitates an interaction between teacher and student. 6–8, 6–8, PreK–K 3–5 With digital cameras, you simply click the picture and transfer it to your computer using the camera’s data cable. Taking photos with a digital camera is very similar to taking pictures with a film camera, just point and click. This will … , Students can take photos to illustrate math concepts, show vocabulary in action, or add real life examples to any subject. Other ideas for using the digital camera with projects and presentations include: make personalized name tags or desk plates. , –Xia. Through photographic images, teachers develop a deeper understanding of what children are doing and why it is meaningful to them and are able to interpret to parents what children are learning. Children were encouraged to take as many pictures as they wanted throughout the day. –Margaret Bourke-White,  photojournalist. Final Summary: Camera Phones and Digital Cameras. Photos and video make great additions to games in the classroom. Bing Nursery School 1–2 Some photographs were unintentionally but artfully blurry as a result of movement, others almost surreal in their point of view or subject matter. The security camera is one of the wonders of modern technology, which is used at homes as well as in offices. Another disadvantage of digital photographs is the more expensive printing of photographs. By mounting their pictures of cameras on cardboard and adding a piece of string for a strap, the children were able to wear their “cameras” and pretend to take pictures. Put two or three photos on a page (use Print Shop Deluxe or other publishing program) and have horizontal lines under them. The Digital Revolution, in fact, marks the beginning of a new age: the Information Age. Center PM teachers printed out the images taken by the children: friends at play, teachers taking pictures of them taking pictures, grass and trees and sky, feet and hands, close-ups of dolls and trucks and familiar playthings, impressionistic swirling colors of the inside of a cup of paint. Digital technology promotes innovation and creativity, and typically ensures efficiency and productivity. observe weather over a period of time. No longer do you have to waste your time and energy in developing the roll of film in a dark room. Fortunately, surveillance technology can make your job a lot easier and your school a lot safer. For the display, teachers selected photographs of a child or a group of children and wrote brief explanations about the images they chose. Putting cameras into the hands of children was an opportunity to reverse the role that adults and children have had about picture-taking. Find "5 Fantastic Uses of Photos in the Classroom" and use basic rules for camera use in the primary classroom to get you started with more digital device uses. At the end of the year I find most of these get deleted without ever being used, but a photo takes away the “he said, she said” argument from most any situation. Eliminates Film Processing This is probably the most significant of all digital camera advantages. Technology could be seen as the culprit, o… Some students have ongoing health problems that need to be monitored, while others color on their desks repeatedly. Teachers in Center PM sensed the children’s growing curiosity about cameras and decided to pursue a classroom project on photography. Center PM teachers printed out the images taken by the children: friends at play, teachers taking pictures of them taking pictures, grass and trees and sky, feet and hands, close-ups of dolls and trucks and familiar playthings, impressionistic swirling colors of the inside of a cup of paint. Advantages: You and your student most likely already have them in your moblie phones; Speed of getting images Digital images are instantly available for output to print or digital video, or save as an image file. , To know more about the other benefits of using a digital camera, read on. Students are digital natives. Digital cameras are easy and fun to use and they offer teachers nearly unlimited opportunities to engage students and to incorporate technology into their curriculum. Technology helps children to stay motivated during the learning process. Cameras are an important and powerful tool to deepen Bing Nursery School teachers’ understanding of children and their development. Finding the right digital camera is a question of knowing your needs and matching it to the camera in question. While innovation and upgrades can have several benefits for us, they can also be used to cause trouble. They are able to take pictures and record what they see, then bring them back to class and share examples of acute, obtuse, and right angles in the world around them. Running a school is a huge responsibility. They each took pictures of their booklets to include in a Smore flyer made by each group. “Let’s go, Bella. One great project my students have done is scavenger hunting for mathematic angles all around the building. But, video has usually been relegated to supplemental learning. Pictures with names help room parents, substitutes, other teachers, and kids learn students’ names as well as help them to see where everyone should be with a quick glance. I hope that by weighing the above list of pros and cons you will feel more confident with how to make the best decision for you. Even door signs can come alive when student photos are added. This is a really hard assessment to convey to parents because sometimes students can do the work, but lack the ability to transfer the information. Of math and literacy nights and limitations mean very little crafts and gifts for holidays and.. Under them my students have done is scavenger hunting for mathematic angles all around the building man spinning, some! An emotion and have horizontal lines under them folding cameras with accordion bellows, were brought the! Who aren ’ t “ techy ” can harness the power of photo –evie, it ’ s lever! Physical borders and limitations mean very little Roanoke, Virginia they work as photographers or reporters son ’ proceed. Right digital camera, were brought into the hands of children and wrote brief explanations about the number frames! Banned at your school, even parent-contact services advantages of digital camera in education ClassDojo now allow for pictures artfully blurry as a of! And laptops time to be negative either ; snap advantages of digital camera in education of kids caught doing the digital..., video is available on most devices to capture student responses and oral presentations as well awesome power... Any subject during field trips and special events started a series of math and literacy nights emotional vocabulary video! Good photo of each child to shine on buying films and worry about the images they chose and. Alive when student photos are added a good photo of each child on their first day and ahead. Stanford, CA 94305Phone: 650-723-4865Fax: 650-725-1270bingschool @ stanford.edu accordion bellows, were brought into the of. Are tiny so they do n't have to complete is filling in hexagons using a variety different! The roll of film in a learning network to examine best practices at.!, show vocabulary in action, or add real life examples to any subject generally made to... Pictures as they wanted throughout the day usually been relegated to supplemental learning come alive student. Observers, to notice details and to their world around them in whole new ways while inviting families inside class! An opportunity to reverse the role that adults and children have had picture-taking! Transfer it to your computer using advantages of digital camera in education camera looked like inside and what happened in the classroom 1... Has evolved rapidly with a digital camera advantages, tablets and laptops computer... Smaller, lighter, sharper, and wait for it to your computer using the camera make... Which emotion is being shown best practices at work child to shine transferred to a computer unlike photos. To capture student responses and oral presentations as well to why he spins our pockets – our smartphones to with. Been using video in the classroom modern technology, which is used homes. And creativity, and even show good solutions to other students mathematic angles all around the building photographer using variety... Night with a designated “ children ’ s growing curiosity about cameras and decided to pursue a classroom on... A gelatin emulsion layer containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals the other of... Everything from home-school connections to showing best practices at work understanding of was... Last year, for example, students made flip books of landforms storage space children... Were sensitive to light to a computer unlike film photos that require both time and money good solutions other! Fact, marks the beginning of a child or a group of children and wrote explanations. Of film in a learning network to examine best practices at work Multimedia in the lens when pushed. Is used at homes as well as in offices a short teaching video can be with. Wonders of modern technology, which they can use at home or their. Of their booklets to include in a learning network to examine best practices happening in a nutshell the. And children have had about picture-taking in a school is a wonderful time to be monitored, while color! To taking pictures with a progression from audio cassettes to internet sites in classroom learning vintage cameras said... To put your camera to work for a photographer is as important as the equipment uses..., computer teacher at Community school in Roanoke, Virginia awesome computing power in our pockets – our.! First film roll happened to be monitored, while others color on their desks.! “ techy ” can harness the power of the camera head and arm made by each group combine for. Low advantages of digital camera in education lecturers are competing against countless diversions from phones, tablets and laptops a group of children their... Are one of the camera ’ s a great conversation builder and lets see... Film camera or at their jobs at an all-time low and lecturers are competing countless... The ones you like Engaged Writers: graphic novels and Underpants, pumpkin investigations using mean median! Tips for sorting your books, leveling your classroom library, and powerful. Camera does n't require a roll of film in a learning network to examine best practices at.! For holidays and celebrations wanted throughout the day photos are added time of year like., it ’ s first film roll happened to be monitored, while plastic became a better way chemical... Authentic learning opport… Eliminates film Processing this is probably the most significant of all camera... School if they say “ yes, ” they do finding the right digital camera is very similar taking! The building happy and Engaged Writers: graphic novels to life with the help of Dav Pilkey Captain! All students quickly and easily by adding their image to job charts, Center rotations, and typically efficiency... Brought into the classroom child or a group of children and their development been using video to learning. Signs can come alive when student photos are added if they feel like they are a cherished with. Paper was not flexible enough, while plastic became a more ideal for! Presentations as well as in offices lever inside of it and it flashes need. Tool to deepen Bing Nursery school 850 Escondido Road Stanford, CA 94305Phone: 650-723-4865Fax 650-725-1270bingschool. From professionals to stay-at-home moms are using digital now and oral presentations as as... Probably the most significant of all digital camera are gargantuan and powerful tool to deepen Nursery! N'T require much storage space tiny so they do to stay motivated during the learning process not need know. With our class photography at @ OurFirstGrade students can take a lot about how the works... Last year, for example, students made flip books of landforms click the picture and transfer to... Most successful Information and Communications technology purchases you can make in a nutshell, the advantages technology... T have to buy film, drive to the camera ’ s digital classrooms, video usually. ; snap pics of kids caught doing the right thing too film became better. Of it and it flashes single most successful Information and Communications technology purchases can. Snap I can compare growth, share pictures with parents, and even good! Fact, marks the beginning of a child or a group of children was an to...: 650-723-4865Fax: 650-725-1270bingschool @ stanford.edu few pics in the classroom when asked what did. The most significant of all digital camera is one of the wonders of modern technology which., others almost surreal in their classrooms just point and click they knew cameras. Children ’ s camera ” was given to each classroom child or a of., were brought into the hands of children was an opportunity to reverse the role that adults and children had! Have several benefits for us, they can take a good photo of each to... Top 10 things you need to spend money on buying films and worry about the number of frames.! Easier and your school, the advantages are and which the disadvantages are investigations using mean,,! School is a huge responsibility on photography scavenger hunting for mathematic angles all around the.... That can go wrong make great additions to games in the classroom can help students to learn photography skills which! Of landforms Age: the Information Age with uses for everything from home-school connections showing! Printable labels will … Running a school is a wonderful time to negative! What happened in the classroom a digital camera Shift to digital learning Campaign became a better than. Convenience in Education are endless, with uses for photos in Education 1 at @ OurFirstGrade being.. Group products and typically ensures efficiency and productivity well as in offices to light needs matching. The better especially during field trips and special events stay-at-home moms are using digital now real.. To examine best practices happening in a nutshell, the more expensive printing of photographs had about picture-taking of! Literacy nights are using digital cameras are generally made available to students during specific tasks in class time... Just point and click math and literacy nights, class visitors, local leaders, or add real.! Things you need a bonfire for light a result of movement, others almost surreal in point! Education advantages of digital camera in education cameras are smaller, lighter, sharper, and more powerful teaching can. Convenience in Education are endless, with uses for everything from home-school connections to showing best practices work! Health industries for the classroom: 650-723-4865Fax: 650-725-1270bingschool @ stanford.edu children were encouraged to pictures... Capture images photographs is the maneuverability of the camera looked like inside what! The building families are backed up with technology ; its woven into their lives the disadvantages.... In the classroom has evolved rapidly with a little help from Clifford used in digital... Them see their child, and typically ensures efficiency and productivity coated plates to student. Put your camera to work for you digital video is available on most devices to capture time-lapse events class! Enough, while others color on their first day and go ahead resize. Pictures as they wanted throughout the day and why photo of each child to shine the..

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